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CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)

Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate conscience, corporate citizenship, social performance, or sustainable responsible business/ Responsible Business)[1] is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms. The goal of CSR is to embrace responsibility for the company's actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere who may also be considered as stakeholders.

The term "corporate social responsibility" came into common use in the late 1960s and early 1970s after many multinational corporations formed the term stakeholder, meaning those on whom an organization's activities have an impact. It was used to describe corporate owners beyond shareholders as a result of an influential book by R. Edward Freeman, Strategic management: a stakeholder approach in 1984.[2] Proponents argue that corporations make more long term profits by operating with a perspective, while critics argue that CSR distracts from the economic role of businesses. Others argue CSR is merely window-dressing, or an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations.

CSR is titled to aid an organization's mission as well as a guide to what the company stands for and will uphold to its consumers. Development business ethics is one of the forms of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR. Public sector organizations (the United Nations for example) adhere to the triple bottom line (TBL). It is widely accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles but with no formal act of legislation. The UN has developed the Principles for Responsible Investment as guidelines for investing entities.

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Social Marketing


Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good.[1] Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods, or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus to promote society's well being as a whole. For example, this may include asking people not to smoke in public areas, asking them to use seat belts, or prompting to make them follow speed limits.
The primary aim of social marketing is "social good", while in "commercial marketing" the aim is primarily "financial". This does not mean that commercial marketers can not contribute to achievement of social good.







Political Marketing





According to Harrop political marketing is not just about political
advertising, party political broadcasts and electoral speeches but it covers
the whole area of party positioning in the electoralmarket.
InthewordsofKavanagh,politicalmarketingissetofstrategiesandtoolsto trace and
study public opinion before and during an election campaign, to develop
campaign communications and to assess their impact.

Maarek conceptualizes political marketing as "a complex process, the outcome
of a more global effort implicating all the factors of the politician's
political communication" and emphasizes that "'political marketing' is the
general method of 'political communication', one of its means". He considers
the introduction of marketing in politics as an outcome of "the elaboration
of a policy of political communication...a global strategy of design,
rationalization and conveyance of modern political communication. One
terminological inconsistency should be noted though. In the aforementioned
figure, Maarek appears to equate a company's consumer products with a
political party's political communications. Such a parallel cannot be drawn,
as a party's "product" consists not of its political communications but of:
a) its ideological platform and its set of policy proposals, b) the party
leader, the candidates and party officials and c) party members in general.
In Maarek's view, political marketing has become an integral and vital
component of political communication. In his words: "Political
communication...encompasses the entire marketing process, from preliminary
market study to testing and targeting". It should be noted that Maarek
admits that the main areas of application of political marketing are
image-making campaigns and election campaigns.

Lock and Harris (1996) point out that "political marketing is concerned with
communicating with party members, media and prospective sources of funding
as well as the electorate". Wring (1997) defines political marketing as "the
party or candidate's use of opinion research and environmental analysis to
produce and promote a competitive offering which will help realize
organizational aims and satisfy groups of electors in exchange for their
votes"[Harris and Kolovos:2004]


                                      O' Cass (1996) argues that the use of marketing "offers political parties
the ability to address diverse voter concerns and needs through marketing
analyzes, planning, implementation and control of political and electoral
campaigns" Harris and Kolovos: 2004]. He further argues that "the central
purpose of political marketing is to enable political parties and voters to
make the most appropriate and satisfactory decisions". O' Cass uses an
exchange model to define political marketing. According to him, when voters
cast their votes, a transaction takes place. In return for their votes, the
party/candidate offersbetter government and policiesafter election. This
way, O' Cass argues, marketing can be applied to political processes as it
is specifically interested in how these transactions are created, stimulated
and valued.

According to Scammell, due to the rapid expansion and the diversity of this
field of science, there is still no consensus on the definition of political
marketing. In her view, political marketing shares with history the desire
to explain political leaders' behavior, shares with political science the
desire to understand the political processes and shares with political
communication an interest in the art of persuasion[Harris and Kolovos:2004].

The American Marketing Association "adopted" the concept of political
marketing by incorporating the crucial word "ideas" in its redefinition of
marketing in 1985. Thus, the AMA definition of marketing read: "Marketing is
the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and
distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy
individual and organizational objectives" (Wring, 1997: 652).

Harrop finds similarities between political marketing and services
marketing; a view which is also shared by Scammell (1995). For
Lees-Marshment (2001) political marketing is the outcome of the marriage
between marketing and politics and, empirically, "it represents the
permeation of the political arena by marketing" (p. 693). In her view this
combination provides a more complete picture of the behavior of political

Political marketing is identical with the use of persuasive techniques in
campaigns to promote both politicians and their policies. The borrowing of
professional communication tools, such as advertising and public relations
is believed to epitomize the concept of political marketing, as underlined
by Kavanagh (1994:8) in his observation, `...parties are like businesses
seeking to promote their products: one seeks votes, the other sales`.
However, Maarek gives a broader aspect. He emphasizes that political
marketing includes evaluation and re-design of policy and electoral strategy
in the light of studies of the electorate's concerns. Thus political
marketing of whom they are addressed to. It encompasses the entire marketing
process, from preliminary market study to testing and targeting.


Marketing PR

You have seen technology change the way that we communicate, and that change
in communication has transformed the practice of marketing. In fact, these
forces are so strong that we are witnessing a convergence of new and
traditional media that will undoubtedly shape the media landscape of the
future.  Marketing Public Relations is now the most powerful method of
promoting products, services, and ideas, the place where new and traditional
media meet to publicize businesses, brands, people and ideas.

Event Management

Just putting together an effective schedule isn't enough, campaign
management at Space and Time means going above and beyond to deliver the
most effective ROI for our clients. We like to think of ourselves as an
extension to our client's marketing team, our role is to dovetail into the
way they like to work, providing insight into our industry and theirs while
delivering first-class advertising campaigns that reach the right people the
right number of times, at the right point in their day, for the right cost.